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Internet of Things (IoT) – Characteristics, Advantages, and so on

Internet of Things or IoT objects have electronics, software, and network connectivity; all these “things” can share data with other devices and systems online.

From commonplace household items to high-tech machinery, a wide variety of gadgets fall into this category.

Internet of Things devices will grow BY 7 billion to 10 billion by 2020 and 22 billion by 2025.


What is the IoT?

“IoT” devices connect to the internet and exchange data with other devices and systems.

However, the name “Internet of Things” is misleading since it implies that all devices must be connected to the global web.

Especially when they only need to share a local area network and have unique identifiers.

The Internet of Things, cheap sensors, powerful embedded computers, and machine learning have advanced the field.

In fact, it is enabled through embedded systems, wireless sensor networks, control systems, and automation (including home and building automation).

IoT is a network of electronic devices controlled by other devices in the network, like smartphones.

Moreover, innovative home products and medical technology use it.

Industry and government have created international and local standards, guidelines, and regulatory frameworks to address these concerns.

There are numerous concerns regarding the potential hazards of IoT technologies and products, with privacy and security being the most prominent.

History of IoT Applications

history of internet of things
Figure 1 – History of Internet of Technology

In 1982, the idea of a network of intelligent devices was considered initially.

The first ARPANET-connected appliance was a customized Coca-Cola vending machine at Carnegie Mellon University.

At this point, the report included information on the inventory and the temperature of newly loaded drinks.

Some examples of academic conferences on ubiquitous computing include UbiComp and PerCom, based on Mark Weiser’s 1991 paper titled “The Computer of the 21st Century.”

However, all contributed to developing the current Internet of Things concept.

Data packets connect and automate devices from appliances to factories, as Reza Raji put it in IEEE Spectrum in 1994.

Also, companies like Microsoft and Novell developed competing solutions like At Work and NEST between 1993 and 1997.

Finally, the field took off when Bill Joy proposed device-to-device communication as part of his “Six Webs” paradigm at the World Economic Forum in Davos in 1999.

In fact, RFID is essential for the Internet of Things as it allows computers to manage individual objects.

Embedding short-range mobile transceivers in commonplace devices is crucial to the Internet of Things because it paves the way for a novel interaction between humans and inanimate objects.

In 2004, NetSilicon’s CEO predicted IoT applications would dominate IT and surpass networked computers.

According to Peterson, the most important uses for the technology would be in medical equipment and industrial controls.

However, IoT began in 2008-2009 with a rise in connected devices per person from 0.08 in 2003 to 1.84 in 2010.

Advantages of the IoT Projects

IoT connects everyday objects to the internet for smooth communication between people, processes, and things.

Also, thanks to technology, objects can now communicate and share data without humans.

As our environment becomes ever more interconnected, digital systems can better track, analyze, and fine-tune the myriad ways.

In which things communicate with one another. The analog and digital spheres interact and find common ground.

Let’s get to know about some significant sectors that are getting huge advantages from IoT


hand holding a tablet for managing IoT Projects in Manufacturing
Figure 2 – IoT Projects in Manufacturing

Production-line monitoring enables proactive equipment maintenance when sensors suggest a fault, giving companies an edge over competitors.

However, sensors detect production drops.

Also, sensor alerts allow manufacturers to test machinery or stop production for repairs.

Businesses can save money, improve asset availability, and control performance.


hand holding a mobile to operate IoT Projects in Automotive
Figure 3 – IoT Projects in Automotive

Automotive IoT applications have great promise.

IoT-enabled sensors in running cars can alert drivers of impending equipment breakdowns and offer advice.

In fact, IoT-based apps can help automakers and suppliers understand consumers’ vehicle maintenance needs.

Logistics Management

a hand holding tablet to operate IoT Projects in Logistics Management
Figure 4 – IoT Projects in Logistics Management

Many IoT applications improve logistics and transportation.

Inventory-carrying fleets can now adapt their routes to weather, vehicle availability, and driver schedules.

Also, inventory sensors could monitor track-and-trace and temperature.

The food and beverage, floral, and pharmaceutical industries, which manage temperature-sensitive goods, benefit from IoT monitoring systems that inform them when temperatures change.


hand holding tablet to manage IoT Projects in Retail
Figure 5 – IoT Projects in Retail

Internet of Things apps help shops manage inventories, customers, supply chains, and costs.

An IoT platform can calculate smart shelves’ weight from RFID tags to manage stock levels and send notifications. In addition, beacons can send tailored ads to retain customers.

Government Work

infrastructure making IoT Projects in Government Work
Figure 6 – IoT Projects in Government Work

IoT projects have many benefits in service-oriented sectors like the public sector.

Moreover, IoT applications can notify users of power outages, water main breaks, and sewage overflows for government-run utilities.

Internet of Things apps can assess outages and send resources to help utilities recover faster.


IoT Projects in healthcare sector
Figure 7 – IoT Projects in Healthcare

IoT applications asset monitoring assists healthcare providers.

Medical professionals must often locate wheelchairs and other patient aids.

The hospital’s IoT asset tracking program can locate wheelchairs using IoT sensors.

This tracking system ensures correct use and financial accounting of each department’s hospital physical assets.

All-Field Security

IoT Projects in All-field Security symbolizing with a phone protected
Figure 8 – IoT Projects in All-field Security

IoT can improve workplace safety as well as asset tracking with the help of AI.

Mine, oil field, chemical, and power plant workers, among others, must be warned of harmful incidents.

In fact, IoT sensor-based applications can rapidly send help to people after an occurrence.

Also, IoT applications track health and environmental parameters via wearables.

These apps help doctors monitor patients remotely while teaching consumers about their health.

Innovations that Made the Internet of Things Possible

A convergence of technology has made the Internet of Things (IoT) possible. Following is the list of the things that made the IoT technology usable-

Sensor Technology

This sector is increasingly low-power and inexpensive. As prices drop and sensor quality improves, more manufacturers can afford IoT projects.


Also, connectivity with Sensors may now easily connect to the cloud and other “things” for data transfer thanks to internet network protocols.

Cloud-based Computing Environments

Even cloud platforms allow businesses and individuals to use scalable infrastructure without managing it.

man holding a laptop with Internet of Things
Figure 9 – Innovations Required for Internet of Things

Machine Language and Analytics

Businesses can now gain valuable insights more easily and quickly with the help of machine learning, analytics, and cloud data sets. The IoT’s data is essential to the success of these new technologies, which are increasing the Internet of Things.

Conversational AI

Internet of Things (IoT) devices like Alexa, Cortana, and Siri can now do natural-language processing (NLP) thanks to neural networks, making them more desirable, affordable, and practical for home use.

Tools Required to Enable IoT

The IoT projects use many technologies. Moreover, IoT devices need a wireless or cabled network to communicate.

Let’s get to know more about the required IoT projects tools-


human finger indicating Addressability for IoT
Figure 10 – Addressability in IoT

The Electronic Product Code could uniquely identify RFID-tagged objects.

Hence the Auto-ID Center was conceived, and IP addresses or URIs are now standard for objects.

The Semantic Web suggests making all items, not just digital, smart, or RFID-enabled ones, accessible using current naming standards like URIs.

Robust centralized servers, on behalf of their human owners, can now reference inanimate things.

It is an absolute necessity for every device to possess an IP address to establish a connection to the internet.

Internet of Things devices must update to IPv6 because IPv4’s address capacity is insufficient (4.3 billion unique addresses).

IoT projects will benefit from IPv6’s stateless address auto-configuration and IETF 6LoWPAN’s header compression.

IPv6 support is essential for the Internet of Things’ success in the coming years.

Short Range Network

a group of people with devices enjoying Short Range Network in IoT
Figure 11 – Short Range Network in IoT

Bluetooth Mesh Networking Spec: An enhancement of Bluetooth low energy (BLE) that enables additional nodes and standardized application layers (Models).

Moreover, like Wi-Fi, Light-Fidelity (Li-Fi) uses visible light transmission to increase bandwidth.

NFC, short for “near-field communication,” allows two electrical devices to communicate from 4 cm away.

Also, Radio-frequency identification (RFID) employs electromagnetic fields to read tags on things.

Local area networking technology based on IEEE 802.11 allows devices to connect directly or through a central access point.

IEEE 802.15.4-based Zigbee personal area networking communication technology has low power consumption, data rate, cost, and throughput.

Moreover, home automation and security systems use Z-Wave wireless communications.

Medium Range Distance

various blocks with individuals painting on it representing Medium Range Distance in IoT
Figure 12 – Medium Range Distance in IoT

High-speed mobile network communication standard LTE Advanced. Expands LTE’s range, data throughput, and latency.

In fact, 5G wireless networks can handle the demanding data-transfer needs of IoT applications.

Also, enable the seamless connectivity of numerous such devices, even while they are moving.

Moreover, 5G has three components for IoT projects: eMBB, mMTC, and URLLC.

Wireless Long-Range

a city covered with Wireless Long-Range network of IoT
Figure 13 – Wireless Long-Range in IoT

Low-power wide-area networking (LPWAN) wireless networks conserve energy and reduce transmission costs by providing long-distance communication at a low data rate.

LoRaWan, Sigfox, NB-IoT, Weightless, RPMA, and MIoTy are LPWAN protocols and technologies.

Small dish antennas deliver narrowband and wideband data using small aperture terminal (VSAT) satellite communication.


Wired data center for IoT
Figure 14 – Wired in IoT

Twisted-pair and fiber-optic cables coupled to hubs and switches make up Ethernet, a general-purpose networking standard.

Power-line communication (PLC) uses an electrical network to convey data and power. IoT device networking uses PLC thanks to HomePlug and protocols.

Ways to Implement IoT Applications

Various use cases are driven by the Internet of Things capacity to deliver sensor data and allow inter-device communication.

Below are some of the major ways of implementing IoT systems-

  • Enhancing Production Effectiveness
  • Enhancing “Ring-Fencing” of Physical Assets
  • Human Health Analytics and Environmental Factors
  • Promoting Better Performance in Current Procedures
  • Allowing Modifications for Business Procedures

Enhancing Production Effectiveness

IoT projects do this by keeping tabs on machine performance and the quality of finished goods.

Even real-time monitoring ensures machines operate within set parameters and defects are quickly identified for prompt correction.

IoT Enhancing Production Effectiveness with automation
Figure 15 – IoT Enhancing Production Effectiveness

Enhancing “Ring-Fencing” of Physical Assets

It is possible through better tracking.

The location of a company’s assets can be readily ascertained with the help of tracking.

By erecting a ring of fence around the property, they can ensure that the valuables within are safe from being taken.

Human Health Analytics and Environmental Factors

human finger indicating health checklist observation
Figure 16 – IoT for Human Health Analytics and Environmental Factors

This part can be monitored with the use of wearables.

Through the Internet of Things, wearables can help individuals gain insight into their health and provide clinicians with remote monitoring of their patients.

Companies can monitor their employees’ well-being and safety thanks to this equipment, which is especially helpful for those who toil in dangerous environments.

Promote Better Performance in Current Procedures

Connected logistics for fleet management uses the Internet of Things to enhance productivity and security.

Monitoring fleets with the Internet of Things allows businesses to provide real-time guidance to trucks, which can increase productivity.

Allowing Modifications for Business Procedures

one male and two female using devices for IoT for Business Procedures
Figure 17 – IoT Allowing Modifications for Business Procedures

Internet of Things (IoT) devices for connected assets are used for things like monitoring the status of far-off machines and dispatching maintenance teams to fix them before they break down.

New product-as-a-service business models are made possible by remote machine monitoring, in which customers no longer have to purchase a product but instead pay for its consumption.

Characteristics of Internet of Things

The IoT project’s most significant breakthrough has been the proliferation of Internet-connected and -controlled devices.

IoT projects have several purposes, yet they share some characteristics.

Real-world objects can be more easily integrated into virtual ones thanks to the Internet of Things, which increases productivity, saves money, and reduces human effort.

In 2017, 8.4 billion IoT devices were used, increasing 31% from 2016. By 2020, analysts expect 30 billion.

In this section, we’ll get to know about some specific characteristics of IoT systems-

  • Intelligence
  • Architecture
  • Structure of Network
  • Connectivity Without A Hub
  • Complexity
  • Space Limits
  • Solution to “Basket of Remotes”
  • Socially-focused IoT


lady with Intelligence in IoT
Figure 18 – Intelligence in IoT

The original Internet of Things vision did not include ambient intelligence or autonomous control.

Ambient intelligence and autonomous control do not always need the Internet.

However, Intel and others are linking IoT projects and independent authority.

Objects are driving autonomous IoT in this emerging trend. Therefore, deep reinforcement learning is appealing since most IoT systems are dynamic and interactive.

In this situation, supervised learning is ineffective for training an agent (i.e., an Internet of Things device) to respond intelligently.

A reinforcement learning agent may perceive the environment (home temperature), take action (such as turning the HVAC on or off), and learn by optimizing its rewards over time.

The cloud, Edge/Fog nodes, and IoT devices can deliver IoT intelligence.

Rapid decision-making is only possible by sending car data to cloud instances and receiving forecasts back to the vehicle. It is best to do everything in the car.

Many of today’s Internet of Things (IoT) products and solutions use various technologies to enable context-aware automation.

But sensor units and intelligent cyber-physical systems in the wild require more complicated intelligence.


Architectural structure using IoT
Figure 19 – Architecture in IoT

A simplified IoT system architecture includes three levels: devices, edge gateway, and cloud.

Modbus, Bluetooth, Zigbee, or a bespoke protocol can connect IoT sensors and actuators to a network.

Edge Gateways are sensor data aggregation systems that preprocess data and secure cloud connectivity using WebSockets, the event hub, and maybe edge analytics and fog computing.

For efficient administration, the Edge Gateway layer must provide a single view of the underlying devices for the higher layers.

The microservices-based Internet of Things (IoT) cloud application is multilingual and secure using HTTPS/OAuth.

Time series and asset stores with backend data storage systems like Cassandra and PostgreSQL store sensor data.

The cloud layer’s event queuing and messaging systems manage inter-tier communication in most cloud-based IoT systems.

IoT systems’ three layers are the edge, platform, and enterprise, connected via proximity, access, and service networks.

The Web of Things is an application layer architecture for the Internet of Things that integrates data from IoT projects into Web-based workflows to create new and valuable applications.

BPM Everywhere merges process management with process mining to automate control of coordinated devices, regulating information flow in the Internet of Things.

Structure of Network

a town using Structure of Network with IoT
Figure 20 – Structure of Network in IoT

The Internet of Things needs massive network scalability to handle the predicted increase of linked devices. With IETF 6LoWPAN, devices can connect to IP networks.

IPv6 will help manage network layer scalability as the number of linked devices grows by the billions.

MQTT, ZeroMQ, and IETF’s Constrained Application Protocol allow low-overhead data transport.

Many IoT device collections need unique identities since they are behind a gateway node.

Most apps do not have a global picture of interconnectedness since data only need superficial connections.

Avoiding such a significant rise in Internet traffic is possible with fog computing. But unfortunately, edge devices can not analyze or analyze data.

IoT projects give data about physical objects while operating independently.

Hence they have limited computing power. Moreover, processors consume batteries quickly, reducing IoT devices’ utility.

IoT devices simplify scaling by transmitting data to a server with enough computational capabilities over the internet.

Connectivity Without A Hub

human hand holding a phone with Connectivity Without A Hub in IoT
Figure 21 – Connectivity Without A Hub in IoT

Decentralized IoT is an adaptation of the original IoT projects.

It uses Fog Computing to handle and balance requests from connected IoT devices, reducing cloud server load and improving responsiveness for latency-sensitive IoT applications.

More like patient vitals monitoring, autonomous driving vehicle-to-vehicle communication, and industrial device critical failure detection.

A central controller directs traditional IoT projects in a mesh network. The controller node oversees data production, storage, and transmission.

Decentralized IoT projects attempt to break down IoT infrastructures.

Under an agreed-upon policy, the top-level node delegated specific decision-making authority to the sub-nodes.

Particularly useful for massive Internet of Things networks with millions of nodes.

Decentralized IoT projects leverage lightweight blockchain technology to circumvent bandwidth and hashing restrictions of battery-powered or wireless IoT devices.

Edge nodes can identify and mitigate assaults by monitoring and analyzing network traffic.


desktop screen showing Complexity in IoT
Figure 22 – Complexity in IoT

The IoT is often analyzed as a complex system, especially in semi-open or closed loops, due to its large number of links, interactions between autonomous actors, and ability to add new actors.

Since systems always have an endpoint, global observers (entire open loop) may see chaos.

Not all IoT projects use a global public network. For security, privacy, and dependability, subsystems are often used.

Domotics data in an intelligent home may only be accessible to devices on the same local network.

SDN provides an adaptable solution for managing and monitoring the ever-changing IoT network, surpassing traditional network design limitations.

Many IoT project stories start with a comment on how big the IoT is, frequently billions or trillions of devices.

In 2015, Americans held an estimated 83 million smart devices. The 2020 forecast is 193 million units.

Also, in 2017 there were 8.4 billion internet-enabled devices, up 31% from 2016.

Space Limits

number of cables limiting space in IoT
Figure 23 – Space Limits in IoT

An object’s position and dimensions may be crucial in the Internet of Things.

Thus, keeping track of a thing’s location in time and space has become less important because the person processing the information can decide if those details are relevant to the action being taken and add the missing data.

Remember that some IoT projects can act as sensors; sensor placement is essential.

Technologies like GeoWeb and Digital Earth depend on location-based organization and connection.

The need to handle massive volumes of data, indexing for fast search and neighbor operations, and varied spatial scales are significant challenges.

If things on the Internet of Things can act autonomously, this human-centric mediation role is unnecessary.

This information ecosystem must value the time-space context humans naturally embrace. Geo-spatial standards will be essential on the Internet of Things, as they are on the Internet and WWW.

Solution to “Basket of Remotes”

Solution to "Basket of Remotes" in IoT
Figure 24 – Solution to “Basket of Remotes” in IoT

This industry might use many Internet of Things devices.

In an article for Monday Note, Jean-Louis Gassée, a member of Apple’s initial alum team and creator of the BeOS operating system.

Predicts that the “basket of remotes” problem—using hundreds of applications to control thousands of devices that do not speak the same language—will be the biggest problem.

Industry leaders are collaborating to create interoperability standards that improve user experiences.

Some people use predictive interaction to enable their devices to work together, “where gathered data is utilized to forecast and trigger actions on the specific devices.”

Socially-focused IoT

two female and one male using socially-focused IoT
Figure 25 – Socially-focused IoT

SIoT, or the Social Internet of Things, emphasizes human connection and communication between linked items.

Cross-domain IoT devices use the “Semantic Internet of Things” (SIoT) to give autonomous services to their owners.

The Internet of Things (IoT) connects gadgets to the internet, giving them identities like people in a society.

IoT projects create a social network for the Internet of Things devices to interact for non-human purposes.

Examples of Internet of Things

Many people divide IoT device uses into four categories: consumer, commercial, industrial, and infrastructure.

Based on these divisions so many examples of IoT uses are available. So let’s get to know about them –

  • Consumers Wellness
  • Product Digitization
  • Home Automation
  • Medical Treatment
  • The All-Ocean
  • Industrial Activities
  • Warfare Device Internet
  • Agriculture
  • V2X (Voice-to-Everything) Communication
  • Infrastructure
  • Citywide Launches
  • Transportation
  • Conserving Energy
  • Current Experiment
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Military
  • ASP-IoT Solutions

Consumers Wellness

a boy using mobile for IoT
Figure 26 – IoT for Consumers Wellness

Consumer-focused IoT device development is growing in the automotive, home automation, wearable tech, healthcare, and appliance industries.

Also, an intelligent house helps older people and the physically challenged ones.

Adaptive technology makes these homes easier for physically challenged persons.

Voice control and alert systems that interface to cochlear implants can help users with mobility, visual, or hearing limitations.

They may have sensors to detect falls or seizures. In this manner, smart home technologies can boost freedom and enjoyment.

Product Digitization

“Smart” or “active” packaging often includes QR codes or NFC tags.

Also, the tag is inert but contains a unique identifier (usually a URL) that lets a smartphone user access product information.

Home Automation

man holding mobile for IoT for Home Automation
Figure 27 – IoT for Home Automation

Home automation includes smart lighting, thermostats, security cameras, and entertainment hubs.

Automatically turning off lights and electronics or improving household energy awareness may cut energy use in the long run.

Smart homes may employ platforms or hubs to control smart devices and appliances.

Home goods and accessory makers can use Apple’s HomeKit to control their products from iOS devices like the iPhone and Apple Watch.

Siri or sophisticated software may be involved.

The Lenovo Smart Home Essentials can be controlled by Siri or the Apple Home app without a Wi-Fi bridge, indicating that such technology is practical.

Stand-alone platforms for smart home devices include Amazon Echo, Google Home, Apple HomePod, and Samsung SmartThings Hub.

Open-source ecosystems like Home Assistant, OpenHAB, and Domoticz complement commercial solutions.

Medical Treatment

doctor using IoT device for Medical Treatment
Figure 28 – IoT for Medical Treatment

IoMT collects, analyzes, and monitors health data for research and clinical use.

“Smart Healthcare”—” the technology for developing a digital healthcare system, combining existing medical resources and healthcare services”—is a growing phrase for the Internet of Medical Things (IoMT).

Remote health monitoring and automatic alert systems are two IoT applications. A BP or heart rate monitor, pacemaker, Fitbit, or high-tech hearing aids are examples of these devices.

Some hospitals use “smart beds” to detect when a patient is trying to get up.

It can alter support and pressure without a nurse.

“Healthcare IoT applications can save the United States more than $300 billion in yearly healthcare costs by generating income and cutting cost”

Goldman Sachs

These sensors and RFID circuits can be printed on paper or e-textiles for wireless, disposable sensing devices.

Point-of-care medical diagnostics, which require portability and low system complexity, use them.

2018 IoMT applications moved beyond clinical laboratories to healthcare and health insurance.

In the former, IoMT lets doctors, patients, and others, including guardians, nurses, relatives, and others, access patient records in a database.

Remote monitoring via robust wireless systems allows health practitioners to record patient data and use complicated algorithms for health data analysis, helping manage chronic diseases and prevent and control sickness.

The All-Ocean

The DARPA-led Ocean of Things project deploys 50,000 floats with passive sensors to detect and track military and commercial vessels autonomously.

In fact, as part of a cloud-based network to collect, monitor, and analyze environmental and vessel activity data.

Industrial Activities

A hand holding IoT device for Industrial Activities
Figure 29 – IoT for Industrial Activities

Industrial IoT applications, or IIoT, collect and analyze data from connected equipment, OT, locations, and people to regulate and monitor industrial systems.

Also, automated record updates of asset placement in industrial storage units can be done regardless of asset size, from a screw to a spare motor part.

Especially, this Titan use case PDF illustrates IIoT.

Moreover, industries used M2M for wireless automation and control until recently.

Cloud and related technologies like analytics and machine learning have given industrial settings new IoT uses.

•      Smart production

•      Connected asset predictive and preventive maintenance

•      Smart grids

•      Tech cities

•      Networked supply chain

•      Intelligent electronic supply chains

In fact, by 2019, researchers expect 9.1 billion EIoT-connected devices.

Warfare Device Internet

ARL formed the IoBT-CRA in 2017 to bring together industry, university, and Army researchers for the Internet of Battlefield Things.

However, this cooperation advances IoT theory and links it to Army operations.


individual holding IoT device for Agriculture
Figure 30 – IoT for Agriculture

The IoT can remotely monitor soil temperature and moisture and use this data for precise fertilization in agriculture.

In fact, rainfall, humidity, wind speed, pest infestation, and soil composition are further farming IoT uses.

Researchers from Kindai University and Toyota Tsusho have developed water pump mechanisms that use artificial intelligence to count and analyze fish on a conveyor belt.

Also, determine water flow efficiency using the Microsoft Azure application suite for IoT technologies in water management. FarmBeats is this project.

V2X (Voice-to-Everything) Communication

Vehicle-to-everything communication (V2X), which includes V2V, V2I, and V2P subsystems, is the foundation for autonomous driving and connected road infrastructure.


city with IoT facility for Infrastructure
Figure 31 – IoT for Infrastructure

IoT applications include monitoring and operating bridges, railway tracks, and on- and offshore wind farms.

In fact, IoT infrastructure can monitor events and structural changes that affect safety and risk.

As a result, the IoT can save time, money, improve work quality, eliminate paper, and boost construction productivity.

It aids Real-Time Data Analytics decision-making and cost savings.

In fact, IoT projects can coordinate repair and maintenance duties between service providers and facility users and regulate ship-accessible bridges.

IoT applications for monitoring and operating infrastructure may improve incident management and emergency response coordination, quality of service, uptimes, and operation costs in all infrastructure-related areas.

However, IoT projects can automate and optimize trash management.

Citywide Launches

hand holding symbolized whole city with IoT for Citywide Launches
Figure 32 – IoT for Citywide Launches

Large-scale IoT implementations to improve municipal and infrastructure management are underway.

In June 2018, the world’s first fully wired smart city, Songdo’s business area was 70% complete.

Santander, Spain, with 180,000 residents, is deploying another two-pronged application.

The city’s smartphone app has been downloaded 18,000 times and linked to 10,000 sensors for parking search, environmental monitoring, digital city agenda, and more.

Also, the Sino-Singapore Guangzhou Knowledge City, San Jose, California’s air, water, noise, and transportation efficiency improvements, and western Singapore’s smart traffic management are other large-scale implementations.

San Diego-based Ingenu established a statewide public network for low-bandwidth data transfers using the same unlicensed 2.4 gigahertz spectrum as Wi-Fi using its RPMA (Random Phase Multiple Access) technologies.

Ingenu’s “Machine Network” spans nearly a third of the US population in 35 major cities like San Diego and Dallas.

Moreover, in 2014, Sigfox, a French startup, established the initial Ultra Narrowband wireless data network in the San Francisco Bay Area.

By 2016, it would have 4000 base stations in 30 U.S. cities, making it the most prominent IoT network coverage provider.

Smart city projects include Cisco. For example, Cisco has deployed Smart Wi-Fi, Smart Safety & Security, Smart Lighting, Smart Parking, Smart Transports, Smart Bus Stops, Smart Kiosks, Remote Expert for Government Services (REGS), and Smart Education across a five-kilometer region in Vijayawada, India.

The NYWW network covers New York City’s Hudson River, East River, and Upper New York Bay, developed and engineered by Chicago-based Fluidmesh Networks.


The Internet of Things (IoT) can improve transportation systems through smart traffic control, smart parking, electronic toll-collecting systems, logistics, and fleet management.

Conserving Energy

Internet-connected lights, appliances, motors, pumps, and other energy-using equipment can communicate with utilities to balance power generation and optimize energy usage.

This provides remote control or central management via a cloud-based interface, scheduling (e.g., remotely switching on or off heating systems), and energy-saving measures.

Current Experiment

hand holding symbolize globe with IoT facility for Current Experiment
Figure 33 – IoT for Current Experiment

Living Lab, a public-private-people partnership, integrates the IoT into research and innovation.

Moreover, 320 Living Labs use the IoT to interact and share knowledge with stakeholders to generate creative and technological goods.

Companies need incentives to develop smart city IoT services.

Smart city projects depend on government regulations to implement the IoT, which improves resource efficiency, efficacy, and accuracy.

In fact, the government incentivizes businesses to collaborate and utilize local resources, including tax breaks, affordable rent, and improved public transportation.

However, technology developers and civic asset managers must work together to give people efficient resource access.

Environmental Monitoring

IoT environmental monitoring applications use sensors to track air and water quality, atmospheric and soil conditions, wildlife movements, and ecosystems.


four Military man operating with IoT
Figure 34 – IoT for Military

The Internet of Military Things (IoMT) uses sensors, weapons, vehicles, robots, human-wearable biometrics, and other innovative technology for reconnaissance, surveillance, and other combat purposes.

In fact, military IoT applications include Camero Tech’s Xaver 1000 system.

The Xaver series uses millimeter wave (MMW) radar in the 30-300 gigahertz band and has an artificial intelligence-based living target tracking system and 3D “sense-through-the-wall” technology.

ASP-IoT Solutions

SaaS IoT Intelligent Applications analyze and provide recorded IoT sensor data to corporate users via dashboards.

Real-time IoT dashboards and alerts use cloud-based machine learning algorithms to analyze vast volumes of linked sensor data to reveal important performance metrics, mean time between failures, and other data.

In fact, these algorithms can also detect equipment problems, inform users, or automate repairs or proactive steps.

Cloud-based IoT apps simplify supply chains, customer support, HR, and financial services

Problems, Complaints, and Disagreements of IoT

Indeed, IoT products have made life easier. But, then again, like everything, it also has some issues that users face often.

So now let’s get to know about them –

  • Split in the Platform
  • Possession of Freedom and Independence
  • Keeping Records
  • Security
  • Safety
  • Design
  • Sustaining the Environment
  • Intentional Obsolescence of Devices
  • Disorienting Jargon

Split in the Platform

Designing applications that function across multiple technology ecosystems can be challenging in the IoT, where devices might vary in hardware and software.

Also, devices in the IoT can communicate wirelessly using various radio technologies, including Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Zigbee, and others.

In the IoT, amorphous computing poses a security issue because older and cheaper devices do not receive critical operating system bug updates.

According to researchers, over 87% of all active Android smartphones may be vulnerable due to companies’ failure to patch and update older devices.

Possession of Freedom and Independence

Two hands holding Possession of Freedom and Independence for IoT
Figure 35 – Possession of Freedom and Independence for IoT

Philip N. Howard, a professor, and published author, think IoT can potentially boost government openness, public agency, and knowledge.

Howard expresses grave concerns about invasions of privacy, arbitrary surveillance, and manipulated political outcomes.

As evidence, Adam Greenfield points to billboards with hidden cameras that track the racial makeup of people who stop to read the ad and argues that IoT applications enter public space and promote conventional behavior.

According to Foucault’s Discipline and Punishment: The Birth of the Prison, the panopticon was integral to enforcing factory order throughout the Industrial Revolution.

Moreover, Foucault argued that enforcing order in places like schools and factories reflected Bentham’s panopticism.

As Tim O’Reilly puts it, IoT is “essentially about human enhancement,” with sensors and data driving decisions, “the applications are dramatically different.”

“What you are about to lose is your privacy.

However, it is worse than that.

The ACLU was concerned that the Internet of Things would restrict civil liberties. Advancements in big data and IoT may make it harder to control our lives.

Influential entities will be harder to understand, and our actions more visible.

The British government acknowledged the growing concern about personal privacy in 2007 when it declared that its smart metering plan would adhere to Privacy by Design principles.

The Dutch parliament rejected a smart metering initiative in 2009 due to privacy concerns. However, the Dutch government approved a reworked program in 2011.

Keeping Records

hand holding devices to keep records for IoT
Figure 36 – Keeping Records for IoT

IoT app developers have the unenviable task of processing and making sense of all that raw sensor data.

Data analysis is a capability of wireless sensor networks.

In these networks, sensor nodes feed information to a decentralized system that processes it.

Another problem is storing large amounts of data. The application may call for a large part of data collection and storage.

Powering IoT projects to acquire and store data remains a “daunting issue” even though the internet generates 5% of global energy.

IoT devices in manufacturing still face data silo challenges due to a lack of autonomy, transparency, and interoperability.

To fully utilize the advantages of IoT, digital businesses should consider reorganizing their data storage.

When researching the I4.0 IT and application ecosystem of German M&E manufacturers, Keller (2021) came upon several problems.


IoT security issues arise from many interconnected devices and the need for robust communication security solutions.

Fault injection attacks target IoT gadgets, such as brakes, engines, locks, hood and trunk releases, horns, heat, and dashboards.

Insecure Internet of Things devices can launch attacks on other connected devices, such as Mirai-infected devices that took down a DNS provider and significant websites in 2016.

Experts in network security are concerned that IoT services will be vulnerable to attacks like this.

Government oversight of the Internet of Things and the internet is necessary due to rising infrastructure concerns and increasingly varied IoT applications.

Most IoT development companies produce easily-guessed and vulnerable keys, facilitating Man-in-the-middle attacks.

Several researchers have proposed improving SSH’s security by strengthening its implementation and keys.

Concerns and opinions about manufacturing IoT security are diverse.

Regarding industrial and digital policy, especially I4.0, data privacy is a significant concern for the European Union and Germany.

Due to the absence of personally identifiable information in IoT data generated by the industrial sector, the company’s perspective on data security diverges from that of GDPR.

Experts in the manufacturing sector are worried about data security in light of the “ever-increasing push for interconnectivity,” which poses a threat from foreign competitors.


a lock on rom/ram symbolizing safety for IoT
Figure 37 – Safety for IoT

Event-driven smart apps automate IoT systems by controlling one or more actuators in response to sensed data, user input, or Internet triggers.

Sensors include devices like motion and smoke detectors.

Also, Actuators include things like smart locks, outlets, and door controls.

Several platforms, including Samsung’s SmartThings, Apple’s HomeKit, and Amazon’s Alexa, allow third-party developers to create intelligent apps that can wirelessly interface with these sensors and actuators.

Apps, IoT failures, and unexpected interactions can create dangerous situations like unlocking doors or turning off heaters at night.

To detect flaws that lead to such states, a complete picture of all installed programs, component devices, configurations, and, most importantly, interactions are required.

A new practical method, IotSan, developed at the University of California, Riverside, uses model checking to detect “interaction-level” faults by identifying triggers that place the system in potentially dangerous configurations.

As part of their SmartThings program, Samsung evaluated IotSan.

In 76 manually configured systems, IotSan identifies 147 physical safety problems.


IoT solutions deployed sustainably and securely will be built with “anarchic scalability” in mind, which may be applied to physical systems.

Therefore, the full potential of Internet-of-things systems may be realized thanks to complex anarchic scalability.

Which permits any management regimes without the fear of physical failure.

Computer scientist Michael Littman says the Internet of Things needs a blend of advanced tech and useful applications.

“If customers need to learn different interfaces for their vacuums, locks, sprinklers, lights, and coffeemakers, it is tough to infer that their lives have been made any easier.” These interfaces need to be more user-friendly and integrated.

Sustaining the Environment

two hands holding device symbolizing Sustaining the Environment for IoT
Figure 38 – Sustaining the Environment for IoT

The manufacturing, use, and eventual disposal of semiconductor-rich devices cause environmental concerns with IoT technologies.

In addition, there are harmful synthetic chemicals and rare-earth metals in today’s gadgets.

This makes it exceedingly difficult to recycle them. As a result, burning or dumping electronics is common.

Extracting rare-earth elements for high-tech gadgets has a high human and ecological cost.

Even so, the social issues stem from the long-term environmental effects of IoT devices.

Intentional Obsolescence of Devices

The Electronic Frontier Foundation is worried that corporations may use the infrastructure for linked devices to “brick” their customers’ gadgets by remotely installing malicious software or turning off essential features.

After purchasing Revolv, Nest Labs shut down the company’s servers, making the “Lifetime Subscription” home automation devices obsolete.

“Poor precedent for a firm with aspirations to sell self-driving cars, medical equipment, and other high-end goods that may be crucial to a person’s livelihood or physical safety,” as the EFF puts it, is Alphabet’s purchase of Nest, Google’s parent company.

Especially the ability to change servers or modify the program is essential for owners.

However, this goes against section 1201 of the US DMCA, which exempts “local usage” but not international. With this, tinkerers are on shaky legal ground.

Electronic Frontier Foundation suggests not buying electronics or using software that prioritizes the producer’s demands.

After-sale manipulations include the Google Nest Revolv, Android’s privacy settings, the PlayStation 3’s Linux-blocking, and the Wii U’s strict adherence to the terms of service.

Disorienting Jargon

IoT terminology is a “terminology zoo,” according to Information Age’s Kevin Lonergan. There is little practical use in terminology, and it only confuses the end user.

Technology firms specializing in the Internet of Things might develop sensors, networks, embedded systems, or analytics.

In fact, the technology field has many related terms, such as IoT, IoE, Industrial Internet, and CPS.

As of March 2020, this “transparent and comprehensive” database contains 807 Internet of Things expressions.

Challenges to Adopt Internet of Things

In this section, we’ll get to know some challenges to adopting IoT products in our daily life-

  • Conflict and Ambiguity
  • Protection and Seclusion
  • Conservative Administration
  • Business and Project Planning

Conflict and Ambiguity

girl depressed with conflict and ambiguity for IoT
Figure 39 – Conflict and Ambiguity for IoT

William Ruh, CEO of GE Digital, presented on GE’s Internet of Things (IoT) services at the first IEEE Computer Society TechIgnite conference.

Mike Farley of Forbes noted that early adopters may be interested in Internet of Things (IoT) solutions.

By all means, those solutions often need more compatibility or a compelling use case for actual consumers.

According to Ericsson’s research on the Internet of Things adoption in Danish businesses, many organizations are unsure “about precisely where the value of IoT rests for them.”

Protection and Seclusion

In consumer IoT, “things” in a user’s environment work together to learn about the user’s preferences and habits to tailor services to those needs better.

Information on a device is susceptible to privacy violations because of the heterogeneous integration of services, devices, and networks.

2016 an IoT botnet caused a DDoS attack on Dyn’s DNS. This took down services like GitHub and Twitter.

Basically, there are four main goals of IoT security:

(1) data confidentiality, wherein only authorized parties have access to transmitted and stored data;

(2) data integrity, wherein both intentional and unintentional corruption of transmitted and stored data must be detected;

(3) non-repudiation, wherein the sender cannot deny sending a given message; and

(4) data availability, wherein authorized parties should have access to transmitted and stored data despite the denial.

Organizations must also implement “reasonable security” measures following data privacy laws.

The California Senate Bill 327 requires connected device manufacturers to implement appropriate security measures to protect device information from unauthorized access, modification, and use.

“Connected devices need security features to protect information and ensure consumer safety and privacy.” According to HB 2395, which can be found in the Wayback Machine archive and was last accessed on September 30, 2020.

Eventually, Kaspersky predicts millions of IoT data breaches in 2020 and 2021.

Conservative Administration

various people with various devices facing conservative administration for IoT
Figure 40 – Conservative Administration for IoT

Ericsson released a study on Danish businesses adopting the Internet of Things.

They are mainly finding a “clash between IoT and companies’ traditional governance structures” due to the “uncertainties and a lack of historical precedence” that IoT still presents.

60% need more organizational capabilities, and 75% need more processes to seize IoT opportunities.

Basically, some businesses risk being “kodaked” because they lack digital leadership in an era of digital transformation.

Which has stifled innovation and IoT adoption to the point where they “were waiting for the market dynamics to play out” or further action regarding IoT “was pending competitor moves, customer pull, or regulatory requirements.”

Business and Project Planning

A 2018 survey found that a lack of business strategy kept 70-75% of IoT installations at the pilot or prototype stage.

Experts worldwide are collaborating to innovate and maximize the advantages of IoT products.

Despite challenges in managing, operating, and executing projects. IoT management needs improvement despite tech advancements.

  • Dedicating time to research and development
  • An early prototype to prove the project’s viability
  • Project Managers Skilled in Multiple Disciplines
  • Jargonization of commercial and technical terms

Government Regulation for IoT Projects

However, data is crucial in driving the Internet of Things (IoT) forward.

The success of connecting devices to enhance their efficiency depends on access to, storage, and data processing.

To achieve this, IoT companies gather data from various sources and store it in their cloud network for further processing.

However, this leaves room for privacy, security risks, and a single point of vulnerability for multiple systems.

Additionally, issues like consumer choice and ownership of data and its usage are still in their early stages of regulation and governance. Different countries have different rules governing IoT.

In fact, laws like the US Privacy Act of 1974, OECD Guidelines, and EU Directive 95/46/EC address privacy and data collection concerns.

man holding tablet with Government Regulation elements for IoT Projects
Figure 41 – Government Regulation for IoT Applications

Current Condition of Government Regulations

FTC (Federal Trade Commission) issued three recommendations in January 2015.

The first one is data security as businesses developing IoT should ensure data security throughout collection, storage, and processing.

Businesses should utilize “defense in depth” with several encryption levels.

Then comes the data consent as consumers should choose what information to share with IoT companies and be notified if their data is compromised.

Moreover, Congress is discussing a March 2015 Senate resolution.

This resolution recognized the need for a national Internet of Things policy that addresses privacy, security, and spectrum distribution.

Also, in March 2016, four senators from both parties presented the Developing Innovation and Growing the Internet of Things (DIGIT) Act to boost the IoT ecosystem.

Especially by having the Federal Communications Commission review the need for a greater spectrum to connect IoT applications.

“If a company creates a device that connects to the internet, they must include security measures suitable for its purpose and function.

Also, ensure the device’s security measures protect the data it holds from unauthorized access, modification, or disclosure.” the bill states.

However, the NHTSA is developing a database of cybersecurity best practices for the automotive industry.

Even the World Bank examined the pros and cons of IoT in governance.

In early December 2021, the U.K. government introduced the Product Security and Telecommunications Infrastructure Bill (PST) to require Internet of Things device distributors, manufacturers, and importers to meet cybersecurity standards.

Moreover, the law also seeks to secure consumer IoT projects.

Final Thoughts

IoT is reshaping transportation by making connected vehicles possible.

In fact, IoT allows car owners to remotely control their vehicles, including warming the car or requesting a ride.

Because the Internet of Things facilitates communication between devices, automobiles can soon schedule maintenance appointments in advance.

However, automobile companies and dealers can flip the traditional automobile ownership paradigm with the help of the linked car.

Traditionally, producers have been at a distance from their customers. Upon delivery to the dealer, the manufacturer’s responsibility for the vehicle ceased.

Moreover, connected automobiles allow manufacturers and dealers to dialogue with their clientele constantly.

Instead of selling vehicles, companies may offer “transportation as a service,” where drivers would pay a fee to use an autonomous vehicle.

Unlike the conventional car ownership model, vehicles rapidly lose performance and value. IoT enables manufacturers to upgrade their cars with new software continuously.

So IoT has a bright future if it can be appropriately used in every sector.

How does IoT work in simple words?

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of devices that exchange information with each other and the cloud. Computers, appliances, and even keys and refrigerators are part of the “Internet of Things” (IoT).

What is the best example of an IoT device?

Examples of IoT-enabled goods you may be familiar with include dishwashers, smart TVs, refrigerators, wearable devices, automobiles, fitness equipment, trucks, heating and cooling systems, and trackers.

What is the oldest IoT device?

John Romkey’s 1990 toaster is considered the first IoT gadget. Many industry experts consider it the first IoT. By 1991, when a crane placed loaves of bread, the whole procedure was mechanized.



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